Saturday, October 23, 2010
Baroque is basically known as a pretentious style period. It took the boundaries that were once used in the renaissance and expanded it until it broke out into the world. It was about intensifying everything they knew and creating a theatrical setting to provide some sort of experience for the viewer. Geometric shapes are now being used in a different way, changing the circle to an ellipse and a square into a diamond to create the sense of movement and making that the emphasis. The classical detailing is used to create movement and proportions and scale are forgotten to emphasis what the designer thought would be important. For example the Laurentian Library Vestibule by Michaelangelo, the steps are used to create the emphasis of the library. The detail becomes this rhythmic movement that surrounds the interior. The steps and detail become fluid throughout the space. Baroque took the classical rules and turned them into a paper ball and throwing them away.
Monday, October 18, 2010
Wednesday, October 6, 2010
The foundation unit was based on the establishment of everything. Everything had its start from somewhere. From the first settlements, in Mesopotamia, China, Ohio valley, and Teotihuacán, had one common theme and that is the form of stacking. They built using natural material that surrounded them and used them to their advantage, in this case stacking; from there, walls and cities were created. They built upon what they understood, from prototypes; in this case life and death, which helped form the look of the city. One example of this was the Teotihuacan society where they had the sun and moon temple that could be described as the life and death temple. These temples are an example of how through the use of stacking monuments were formed.
Egypt took this concept of stacking and formed the pyramids on the west and the city in the east. They took their religion and theory of what they knew of life and developed a city to reflect their beliefs. Using the natural material around them they stacked up each block to form the pyramids. But before they were pyramids it was the mestaba an underground burial place for the dead. Then taking that form and stacking one on top of the other created the step pyramid; leading up to what the pyramids that we familiarize with are created. In the hypostyle hall they had stylized lotus columns that would become the prototype of future societies to view them. Their way of narrating their society’s life became the ornamentation of their time, and a history marked literally in time. Within their own society there was a since of prototype, and archetype.
Greece borrowing from Egypt took the stylized column and used it to their advantage, becoming what we know as the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns. Having a different view of life changed the concept and set of architecture. They believed in living for the day and making everything perfect and aesthetically pleasing. They had the method of keeping everything proportional and symmetrical basing it off of the diameter of the columns used in the structure. Different from how Egypt had set up their city, Greece was very harmonious in having an a-symmetrical balance in their arrangement. The columns were used as a structural support and a method of keeping everything proportional, because it had its own equation to keep everything in order. Even within their first attempts to find the perfect balance of diameter and height of column was the prototypes of the Grecian temples. Compared to the previous temple columns the improved version is much slimmer and proportional. Becoming the archetype in which different methods would be tested and refined to its full potential.
Rome had the precedents of both Egypt and Greece to construct their empire. They stacked and reused what was available to them. They combined, mixed and matched the styles to add decoration to their architecture. With what they had they built upon it and came up with new structures due to what the people needed. It was the need for innovation in which they created new forms. They revisited Egypt’s use of story telling in trajan’s column. The columns themselves changed from not only being structural support but ornamentation as well. Rome was now being the hybrid because they incorporated different elements. A good example of stacking from Rome is the Roman Coliseum. This structure used the columns that were once seen in the Grecian society as architectural support, as a decorative system stacking the orders on top of one another.
It is not uncommon that stacking remained throughout the centuries and that is also being used currently. We are constantly looking back at previous societies to see what they had to offer in design. We only use what is important just like they did and morphed it to whatever our needs are in society. Each society has a major influence to one another and the same is true for modern cultures. Whether we are actually stacking the columns on top of each other or stacking and building upon the ideas and concepts once used ancient societies.
Friday, October 1, 2010
Salisbury vs. Cologne Cathedral
Light in cathedrals have a lot to do with how the mood is set in the building. The light in both cathedrals is filtered by the stained glass, creating this mystery setting to represent the mystery of faith. When the light shines through the stained glass it illuminates the religious stories. The materials used inside the building help glisten the whole interior, helping the viewer lead their eyes towards the heavens, giving the sense of verticality. The nave in both of these buildings is where the light emphasizes the verticality of the structure. However, the way the light illuminates each nave is different. The Salisbury Cathedral has paintings on the vaulted ceiling; a person might notice this as their eyes are looking toward to the “heavens”. On the other hand, the Cologne Cathedral has no other narrative other than the stain glass windows illuminated by light. Light is such an important factor in these structures because it represents their faith, and their search for a higher being.
Salisbury vs. Amiens Cathedral
The Salisbury and Amiens Cathedral were both started in the same year 1220. The Salisbury Cathedral finished in 1266 while the Amiens finished in 1269.Both of them have about the same length as well the only difference is the width and height, Amiens being vertically taller and Salisbury spreading out horizontally. The Salisbury Cathedral was built on the outskirts of the old city of Sarum, therefore giving it more free area around it, and then a city was built around it later on. The main purpose of this Cathedral was simply for worship. Whereas the Amiens Cathedral was built within the city and had several other functions other than worship. The Amiens is a French Cathedral, which has a lot of vertical lines throughout the place creating the optical illusion that it is higher than what it really is. Salisbury being an English Cathedral, the horizontal line kept the vertical dimensions lower on the Continent. Therefore one is much wider than the other. Since the Amiens’ nave was much larger it needed to have more support, therefore creating the flying buttresses. Each Cathedral had their differences but both expressed the vertical notion in different ways.
Salisbury vs. Florence (Duomo)
Surely when you take a glimpse of both the Salisbury and Duomo Cathedral they leave quite an impression. The Salisbury Cathedral is more vertical and gothic, where as the Duomo has domes. Clearly when the Salisbury is compared to the Duomo, it has a darker palette, and gothic feel, the flying buttresses on the outside and the stained glass windows, it took religion seriously by just focusing on the structure as a place to worship. The Duomo on the other hand embraced a different architectural form and used it as a different way to express the religion; it was more playful in a way because of its light palette. The exterior as well shows no gothic influence, there are no flying buttresses on the outside but the domes replace it. The dome itself was made of brick, which has a playful tone in contrast with the stone that was mostly used in Salisbury. Both have crucifix plans, but one is more geometrical than the other.
2. In medieval ages the kitchen was a separate building until stone and brick constructions were developed because they were originally constructed out of wood. As you can tell in the picture, behind her are small rectangular slits, these were the windows used in the earlier time period. As the need for protection decreased the window form opened up and began to form bays. This kitchen could have been a part of a castle that was enclosed for protection. Since the medieval ages was also known as the dark ages, because of its violent history.